lunes, 12 de julio de 2010


Contenido - Contents


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi

Part of a series on
Hindu philosophy


Samkhya · Yoga · Nyaya · Vaisheshika · Purva Mimamsa · Vedanta (Advaita · Vishishtadvaita · Dvaita · Achintya Bheda Abheda)



Gautama · Jaimini · Kanada · Kapila · Markandeya · Patañjali · Valmiki · Vyasa

Adi Shankara · Basava · Dnyaneshwar · Chaitanya · Gangesha Upadhyaya · Gaudapada · Jayanta Bhatta · Kabir · Kumarila Bhatta · Madhusudana · Madhva · Namdeva · Nimbarka · Prabhakara · Raghunatha Siromani · Ramanuja · Vedanta Desika · Tukaram · Tulsidas · Vachaspati Mishra · Vallabha

Aurobindo · Coomaraswamy · Dayananda Saraswati · Gandhi · Krishnananda · Narayana Guru · Prabhupada · Ramakrishna · Ramana Maharshi · Radhakrishnan · Sivananda · Vivekananda · Yogananda

Yoga (Sanskrit, Pāli: योग yóga) refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India.[1] The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[2][3][4] Within Hinduism, it also refers to one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy, and to the goal towards which that school directs its practices.[5][6] In Jainism, yoga is the sum total of all activities — mental, verbal and physical.

Major branches of yoga in Hindu philosophy include Rāja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga.[7][8][9] According to the authoritative Indian philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, yoga, based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, comprises one of the six main Hindu schools of philosophy (darshanas), together with Kapila's Samkhya, Gautama's Nyaya, Kanada's Vaisheshika, Jaimini's Purva Mimamsa, and Badarayana's Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta.[10] Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras.

The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings,[11] and is derived from the Sanskrit root "yuj", meaning "to control", "to yoke" or "to unite".[12] Translations include "joining", "uniting", "union", "conjunction", and "means".[13][14][15] It is also possible that the word yoga derives from "yujir samadhau," which means "contemplation" or "absorption."[16] This translation fits better with the dualist Raja Yoga because it is through contemplation that discrimination between prakrti (nature) and purusha (pure consciousness) occurs.

Outside India, the term yoga is typically associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy to a high level of attainment is called a yogi or yogini.[17]


[edit] History

The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics, while ascetic practices (tapas) are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 to 500 BCE), early commentaries on the Vedas.[18] Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 B.C.E.) sites in Pakistan depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, showing "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga", according to archaeologist Gregory Possehl.[19] Some type of connection between the Indus Valley seals and later yoga and meditation practices is speculated upon by many scholars, though there is no conclusive evidence.[20]

Techniques for experiencing higher states of consciousness in meditation were developed by the shramanic traditions and in the Upanishadic tradition.[21]

While there is no clear evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation originated in the Brahminic tradition, based on strong parallels between Upanishadic cosmological statements and the meditative goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts.[22] He mentions less likely possibilities as well.[23] Having argued that the cosmological statements in the Upanishads also reflect a contemplative tradition, he argues that the Nasadiya Sukta contains evidence for a contemplative tradition, even as early as the late Rg Vedic period.[22]

The Buddhist texts are probably the earliest texts describing meditation techniques.[24] They describe meditative practices and states which had existed before the Buddha as well as those which were first developed within Buddhism.[25] In Hindu literature, the term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad, where it refers to control of the senses and the cessation of mental activity leading to a supreme state.[26] Important textual sources for the evolving concept of Yoga are the middle Upanishads, (ca. 400 BCE), the Mahabharata including the Bhagavad Gita (ca. 200 BCE), and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (150 BCE).

[edit] Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

In Indian philosophy, Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools.[27][28] The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the Samkhya school.[29] The Yoga school as expounded by the sage Patanjali accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality.[30][31] The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...."[32] The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer:

These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage (bandha), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release (mokṣa), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or 'isolation-integration' (kaivalya).[33]

Patanjali is widely regarded as the founder of the formal Yoga philosophy.[34] Patanjali's yoga is known as Raja yoga, which is a system for control of the mind.[35] Patanjali defines the word "yoga" in his second sutra,[36] which is the definitional sutra for his entire work:

योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
( yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ )

- Yoga Sutras 1.2

This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as "Yoga is the inhibition (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta)".[37] The use of the word nirodhaḥ in the opening definition of yoga is an example of the important role that Buddhist technical terminology and concepts play in the Yoga Sutra; this role suggests that Patanjali was aware of Buddhist ideas and wove them into his system.[38] Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as "Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)."[39]

Statue of Lord Shiva (Bangalore, India) performing Yogic meditation in the Padmasana posture.

Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today. The Eight Limbs are:

  1. Yama (The five "abstentions"): non-violence, non-lying, non-covetousness, non-sensuality, and non-possessiveness.
  2. Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerity, study, and surrender to god.
  3. Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.
  4. Pranayama ("Suspending Breath"): Prāna, breath, "āyāma", to restrain or stop. Also interpreted as control of the life force.
  5. Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.
  6. Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object.
  7. Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation.
  8. Samādhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.

In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of the world to be illusion. The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the event of one of many individual selves discovering itself; there is no single universal self shared by all persons.[40]

[edit] Yoga and Samkhya

Patanjali systematized the conceptions of Yoga and set them forth on the background of the metaphysics of Samkhya, which he assumed with slight variations. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear along with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa's commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the “Samkhyapravacanabhasya”, brings out the intimate relation between the two systems.[41]

Yoga agrees with the essential metaphysics of Samkhya, but differs from it in that while Samkhya holds that knowlege is the means of liberation, Yoga is a system of active striving, mental discipline, and dutiful action. Yoga also introduces the conception of God. Sometimes Patanjali's system is referred to as “Seshvara Samkhya” in contradistinction to Kapila's “Nirivara Samkhya”.[42]

[edit] Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita ('Song of the Lord'), uses the term yoga extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation,[43] it introduces three prominent types of yoga:[44]

Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six with Bhakti yoga, and the last six with Jnana (knowledge).[45] Other commentators ascribe a different 'yoga' to each chapter, delineating eighteen different yogas.[46]

[edit] Hatha Yoga

Hatha Yoga is a particular system of Yoga described by Yogi Swatmarama, compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika in 15th century India. Hatha Yoga differs substantially from the Raja Yoga of Patanjali in that it focuses on shatkarma, the purification of the physical body as leading to the purification of the mind (ha), and prana, or vital energy (tha).[47][48] Compared to the seated asana, or sitting meditation posture, of Patanjali's Raja yoga,[49] it marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body 'postures' now in popular usage [50] and, its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word "Yoga" today.[51]

[edit] Yoga practices in other traditions

[edit] Buddhism

The Buddha depicted in yogic meditation, Kamakura, Japan

Early Buddhism incorporated meditative absorption states.[52] The most ancient sustained expression of yogic ideas is found in the early sermons of the Buddha.[53] One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition.[54] The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states alone are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness.[55] The Buddha also departed from earlier yogic thought in discarding the early Brahminic notion of liberation at death.[56] Liberation for the Brahminic yogin was thought to be the realization at death of a nondual meditative state anticipated in life. In fact, old Brahminic metaphors for the liberation at death of the yogic adept ("becoming cool", "going out") were given a new meaning by the Buddha; their point of reference became the sage who is liberated in life.[57]

[edit] Yogacara Buddhism

Yogacara (Sanskrit: "yoga practice"[58]), also spelled yogāchāra, is a school of philosophy and psychology that developed in India during the 4th to 5th centuries. Yogacara received the name as it provided a yoga, a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva.[59] The Yogacara sect teaches yoga in order to reach enlightenment.[60]

[edit] Ch'an (Seon/Zen) Buddhism

Zen (the name of which derives from the Sanskrit "dhyaana" via the Chinese "ch'an"[61]) is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with Yoga.[52] In the west, Zen is often set alongside Yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances.[62] This phenomenon merits special attention since the Zen Buddhist school of meditation has some of its roots in yogic practices.[63] Certain essential elements of Yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular.[64]

[edit] Indo-Tibetan Buddhism

Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism. In the Nyingma tradition, the path of meditation practice is divided into nine yanas, or vehicles, which are said to be increasingly profound.[65] The last six are described as "yoga yanas": Kriya yoga, Upa yoga, Yoga yana, Mahā yoga, Anu yoga and the ultimate practice, Ati yoga.[66] The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa (called Charya), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.[67] Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga (Tib. Trul khor), a discipline that includes breath work (or pranayama), meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner.[68] The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan Yoga by Chang (1993) refers to caṇḍalī (Tib. tummo), the generation of heat in one's own body, as being "the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan Yoga".[69] Chang also claims that Tibetan Yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism.

[edit] Jainism

Tirthankara Parsva in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga posture.
Kevala Jñāna of Mahavira in mulabandhasana posture

According to Tattvarthasutra, 2nd century CE Jain text, Yoga, is the sum total of all the activities of mind, speech and body.[4] Umasvati calls yoga the cause of asrava or karmic influx [70] as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation.[70] In his Niyamasara, Acarya Kundakunda, describes yoga bhakti—devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion.[71] Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.[72] Dr. Heinrich Zimmer contended that the yoga system had pre-Aryan origins that did not accept the authority of the Vedas, and hence had to be reckoned as one of the heterodox doctrines similar to Jainism.[73] Jain iconography depicts Jain Tirthankara's meditation in Padmasana or Kayotsarga yogic poses. Mahavira was said to have achieved Kevala Jnana "enlightenment" siting in mulabandhasana ('root-lock') position, which is first mentioned in the Acaranga Sutra and later in Kalpasutra [74]

The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a strong influence of Jainism.[75][76] This mutual influence between the Yoga philosophy and Jainism is admitted by the author Vivian Worthington who writes: "Yoga fully acknowledges its debt to Jainism, and Jainism reciprocates by making the practice of yoga part and parcel of life." [77] The Indus valley seals and iconography also provide a reasonable evidence of the existence of a proto-yogic tradition akin to Jainism.[78] More specifically, scholars and archaeologists have remarked on close similarities in the yogic and meditative postures depicted in the seals with those of various Tirthankaras: the "kayotsarga" posture of Rsabha and the mulabandhasana of Mahavira along with seals depicting meditative figure flaked by upright serpents bearing similarities to iconography of Parsva. All these are indicative of not only links between Indus Valley Civilisation and Jainism, but also show the contribution of Jainism to various yogic practices.[79]

[edit] References in Jain canons and literature

Earliest of Jain canonical literature like Acarangasutra and texts like Niyamasara, Tattvarthasutra etc. had many references on yoga as a way of life for laymen and ascetics. The later texts that further elaborated on the Jain concept of yoga are as follows:

  • Pujyapada (5th century CE)
    • Ishtopadesh
  • Acarya Haribhadra Suri(8th century CE)
    • Yogabindu
    • Yogadristisamuccaya
    • Yogasataka
    • Yogavimisika
  • Acarya Joindu (8th century CE)
    • Yogasara
  • Acarya Hemacandra (11th century CE)
    • Yogasastra
  • Acarya Amitagati (11th century CE)
    • Yogasaraprabhrta

[edit] Islam

The development of Sufism was considerably influenced by Indian yogic practises, where they adapted both physical postures (asanas) and breath control (pranayama).[80] The ancient Indian yogic text, Amritakunda, ("Pool of Nectar)" was translated into Arabic and Persian as early as the 11th century. Several other yogic texts were appropriated by Sufi tradition but typically the texts juxtapose yoga materials alongside Sufi practices without any real attempt at integration or synthesis. Yoga became known to Indian Sufis gradually over time but engagement with yoga is not found at the historical beginnings of the tradition.[81]

Malaysia's top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, which is legally non-binding, against Muslims practicing yoga, saying it had elements of "Hindu spiritual teachings" and that its practice was blasphemy and is therefore haraam. Muslim yoga teachers in Malaysia criticized the decision as "insulting".[82] Sisters in Islam, a women's rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said that its members would continue with their yoga classes.[83] The fatwa states that yoga practiced only as physical exercise is permissible, but prohibits the chanting of religious mantras,[84] and states that teachings such as the uniting of a human with God is not consistent with Islamic philosophy.[85] In a similar vein, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains "Hindu elements"[86] These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India.[87]

In May 2009, Turkey's head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of yoga possibly competing with and eroding participation in Islamic practice.[88]

The only sect of the Islam community that has successfully incorporated yoga into its practice is the Jogi Faqir, whose followers are Muslim converts from the Hindu Jogicaste.

[edit] Christianity

The Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices which include yoga and meditation.[89][90]

In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and A Christian reflection on the New Age which were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90 page handbook detailing the Vatican's position.[91] The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation "can degenerate into a cult of the body" and that equating bodily states with mysticism "could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations." Such concerns can be traced to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics' belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge.[92]

The letter also says, "one can see if and how [prayer] might be enriched by meditation methods developed in other religions and cultures"[93] but maintains the idea that "there must be some fit between the nature of [other approaches to] prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality."[92] The Rev. John Wijngaards points out the long Judaic and Christian histories of absorbing elements from surrounding religions. He notes that the absence of any intense experience of God's power has sent some Christians eastward. Many Roman Catholics now bring elements of Yoga, Buddhism, and Hinduism into their spiritual practices.[92]

Some fundamentalist Christian organizations consider yoga practice to be incoherent to their religious background and therefore a non-Christian religious practice. It is also considered a part of the New Age movement and therefore inconsistent with Christianity.[94]

[edit] Tantra

Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice, an individual perceives reality as maya, illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it.[95] This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism, links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions, such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation, which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes.[95]

Though the paths of Tantra & Yoga are contradictory[96], they do intersect at some common philosophies and goals. As Osho tries to differentiate between these two paths, he quotes:

Yoga is suppression with awareness; Tantra is indulgence with awareness.[97]

As Robert Svoboda attempts to summarize the three major paths of the Vedic knowledge, he exclaims:

Because every embodied individual is composed of a body, a mind and a spirit, the ancient Rishis of India who developed the Science of Life organized their wisdom into three bodies of knowledge: Ayurveda, which deals mainly with the physical body; Yoga, which deals mainly with spirit; and Tantra, which is mainly concerned with the mind. The philosophy of all three is identical; their manifestations differ because of their differing emphases. Ayurveda is most concerned with the physical basis of life, concentrating on its harmony of mind and spirit. Yoga controls body and mind to enable them to harmonize with spirit, and Tantra seeks to use the mind to balance the demands of body and spirit.[98]

During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation. This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate's previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini Yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the "heart", for meditation and worship.[99]

[edit] Goal of yoga

The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving Moksha.[43] Within Jainism and the monist schools of Advaita Vedanta and Shaivism, the goal of yoga takes the form of Moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (Samsara), at which point there is a realisation of identity with the Supreme Brahman. In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma, as Brahman, or as perceiving the Brahman or Atman that pervades all things.[100] For the bhakti schools of Vaishnavism, bhakti or service to Svayam bhagavan itself may be the ultimate goal of the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu.[101]

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ For the uses of the word in Pāli literature, see Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede, Pali-English dictionary. Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, page 558: [1]
  2. ^ Denise Lardner Carmody, John Carmody, Serene Compassion. Oxford University Press US, 1996, page 68.
  3. ^ Stuart Ray Sarbacker, Samādhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. SUNY Press, 2005, pages 1-2.
  4. ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.1], see Manu Doshi (2007) Translation of Tattvarthasutra, Ahmedabad: Shrut Ratnakar p. 102
  5. ^ "Yoga has five principal meanings: 1) yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal; 2) yoga as techniques of controlling the body and the mind; 3) yoga as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana); 4) yoga in connection with other words, such as hatha-, mantra-, and laya-, referring to traditions specialising in particular techniques of yoga; 5) yoga as the goal of yoga practice." Jacobsen, p. 4.
  6. ^ Monier-Williams includes "it is the second of the two Sāṃkhya systems", and " abstraction practised as a system (as taught by Patañjali and called the Yoga philosophy)" in his definitions of "yoga".
  7. ^ Pandit Usharbudh Arya (1985). The philosophy of hatha yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; 2nd ed.
  8. ^ Sri Swami Rama (2008) The royal path: Practical lessons on yoga. Himalayan Institute Press; New Ed edition.
  9. ^ Swami Prabhavananda (Translator), Christopher Isherwood (Translator), Patanjali (Author). (1996). Vedanta Press; How to know god: The yoga aphorisms of Patanjali. New Ed edition.
  10. ^ Radhankrishan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, pp. 19-20.
  11. ^ For a list of 38 meanings of the word "yoga" see: Apte, p. 788.
  12. ^ For "yoga" as derived from the Sanskrit root "yuj" with meanings of "to control", "to yoke, or "to unite" see: Flood (1996), p. 94.
  13. ^ For meaning 1. joining, uniting, and 2., union, junction, combination see: Apte, p. 788.
  14. ^ For "mode, manner, means", see: Apte, p. 788, definition 5.
  15. ^ For "expedient, means in general", see: Apte, p. 788, definition 13.
  16. ^ For "yoga" as derived from the root "yujir samadhau" rather than "yujir yoge", see Maehle p. 141
  17. ^ American Heritage Dictionary: "Yogi, One who practices yoga." Websters: "Yogi, A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic."
  18. ^ Flood, p. 94.
  19. ^ Possehl (2003), pp. 144-145
  20. ^ See:
  21. ^ Flood, pp. 94–95.
  22. ^ a b Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 51.
  23. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 56.
  24. ^ Richard Gombrich, "Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo." Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 44.
  25. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 50.
  26. ^ Flood, p. 95. Scholars do not list the Katha Upanishad among those that can be safely described as pre-Buddhist, see for example Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur", [2]. Some have argued that it is post-Buddhist, see for example Arvind Sharma's review of Hajime Nakamura's A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1987), pp. 325-331. For a comprehensive examination of the uses of the Pali word "yoga" in early Buddhist texts, see Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede, "Pali-English dictionary." Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, page 558: [3]. For the use of the word in the sense of "spiritual practice" in the Dhammapada, see Gil Fronsdal, "The Dhammapada", Shambhala, 2005, pages 56, 130.
  27. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453–487.
  28. ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  29. ^ For close connection between Yoga philosophy and Samkhya, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  30. ^ For Yoga acceptance of Samkhya concepts, but with addition of a category for God, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453.
  31. ^ For Yoga as accepting the 25 principles of Samkhya with the addition of God, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  32. ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy", p. 104.
  33. ^ Zimmer (1951), p. 280.
  34. ^ For Patanjali as the founder of the philosophical system called Yoga see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 42.
  35. ^ For "raja yoga" as a system for control of the mind and connection to Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as a key work, see: Flood (1996), pp. 96–98.
  36. ^ Patañjali (2001-02-01). "Yoga Sutras of Patañjali" (etext). Studio 34 Yoga Healing Arts. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  37. ^ For text and word-by-word translation as "Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind" see: Taimni, p. 6.
  38. ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords. University of California Press, 1996, page 9.
  39. ^ Vivekanada, p. 115.
  40. ^ Stephen H. Phillips, Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of "new Logic". Open Court Publishing, 1995., pages 12–13.
  41. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 342.
  42. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.
  43. ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 10.
  44. ^ "...Bhagavad Gita, including a complete chapter (ch. 6) devoted to traditional yoga practice. The Gita also introduces the famous three kinds of yoga, 'knowledge' (jnana), 'action' (karma), and 'love' (bhakti)." Flood, p. 96.
  45. ^ Gambhirananda, p. 16.
  46. ^ Jacobsen, p. 46.
  47. ^ Living Yoga: Creating a Life Practice - Page 42 by Christy Turlington (page 42)
  48. ^ Guiding Yoga's Light: Yoga Lessons for Yoga Teachers - Page 10 by Nancy Gerstein
  49. ^ Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath Body & Mind - Page 6 by Frank Jude Boccio
  50. ^ Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice by Mikel Burley (page 16)
  51. ^ Feuerstein, Georg. (1996). The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
  52. ^ a b Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 22)
  53. ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords. University of California Press, 1996, page 8.
  54. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 73.
  55. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 105.
  56. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 96.
  57. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 109.
  58. ^ Dan Lusthaus: "What is and isn't Yogacara"
  59. ^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. Published 2002 (Routledge). ISBN 0700711864. pg 533
  60. ^ Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804831998
  61. ^ The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan. Edited by William Theodore de Bary. Pgs. 207-208. ISBN 0-394-71696-5 - "The Meditation school, called Ch'an in Chinese from the Sanskrit dhyāna, is best known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation Zen"
  62. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (Page xviii)
  63. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0941532895 [Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen Buddhist school of meditation."]
  64. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13)
  65. ^ The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to Tantra by Chogyam Trungpa. Shambhala, 2001 ISBN 1570628955
  66. ^ Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. ISBN 157062917X pg 37-38
  67. ^ Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. ISBN 157062917X pg 57
  68. ^ Yantra Yoga: The Tibetan Yoga of Movement by Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. Snow Lion, 2008. ISBN 1559393084
  69. ^ Chang, G.C.C. (1993). Tibetan Yoga. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1, p.7
  70. ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.2]
  71. ^ Niyamasara [134-40]
  72. ^ Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p.66
  73. ^ Zimmer, Heinrich in (ed.) Joseph Campbell: Philosophies of India. New York: Princeton University Press, 1969 p.60
  74. ^ Chapple, Christopher.(1993) Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. New York: SUNY Press, 1993 p. 7
  75. ^ Zydenbos (2006) p.66
  76. ^ A History of Yoga by Vivian Worthington (1982) Routledge ISBN 071009258X p. 29
  77. ^ Vivian Worthington (1982) p. 35
  78. ^ Chapple, Christopher.(1993), p.6
  79. ^ Chapple, Christopher.(1993), pp.6-9
  80. ^ Ernst, C. W. (2005). "Situating Sufism and Yoga". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 15: 15. doi:10.1017/S1356186304004675. edit
  81. ^
  82. ^ Top Islamic body: Yoga is not for Muslims - CNN
  83. ^ [4]
  84. ^ "Malaysia leader: Yoga for Muslims OK without chant", Associated Press
  85. ^ [5]
  86. ^ "Indonesian clerics issue yoga ban". BBC News. 2009-01-25. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
  87. ^ [6]
  88. ^
  89. ^ BBC News Feb 4, 2003 Vatican sounds New Age alert
  90. ^ Catholicism in dialogue: conversations across traditions‎ by Wayne Teasdale 2004 ISBN 0742531783 Page 74
  91. ^ Handbook of vocational psychology by W. Bruce Walsh, Mark Savickas 2005 ISBN 0805845178 page 358
  92. ^ a b c Steinfels, Peter (1990-01-07). "Trying to Reconcile the Ways of the Vatican and the East". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  93. ^ 1989 Letter from Vatican to Bishops on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation
  94. ^ Dr Ankerberg, John & Dr Weldon, John, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs, Harvest House Publishers, 1996
  95. ^ a b Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 313
  96. ^ Second Chapter, The Book of Secrets, St. Martin's Griffin, 1998. ISBN 0312180586, 9780312180584
  97. ^ P. 16 Second Chapter, The Book of Secrets, St. Martin's Griffin, 1998. ISBN 0312180586, 9780312180584
  98. ^ Your ayurvedic constitution: Prakruti by Robert Svoboda Motilal Banarsidass Publication,2005; ISBN 8120818407, 9788120818408 Google Books
  99. ^ Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 317
  100. ^ Jacobsen, p. 9.
  101. ^ "Vaishnavism" Britannica Concise "Characterized by an emphasis on bhakti, its goal is to escape from the cycle of birth and death in order to enjoy the presence of Vishnu."

[edit] Sources

  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
  • Chang, G.C.C. (1993). Tibetan Yoga. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1
  • Chapple, Christopher.(1993) Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. New York: SUNY Press, 1993 p. 7
  • Feuerstein, Georg (1996). The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. 1st ed.. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications.
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
  • Gambhirananda, Swami (1998). Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad_Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9.
  • Jacobsen, Knut A. (Editor); Larson, Gerald James (Editor) (2005). Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004147578. (Studies in the History of Religions, 110)
  • Maehle, Gregor (2006). Ashtanga Yoga: Practice & Philosophy. Novato: New World Library. ISBN 978-1-57731-606-0.
  • Müller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • Possehl, Gregory (2003). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759101722.
  • Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
  • Taimni, I. K. (1961). The Science of Yoga. Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7.
  • Worthington, Vivian A History of Yoga 1982 Routledge ISBN 071009258X
  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York, New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1. Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.
  • Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p. 66
  • [7]

[edit] Further reading

  • Yoga Unveiled Documentary at
  • Patañjali (2001). Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Studio 34 Yoga Healing Arts.
  • Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (Eighth Reprint ed.). Calcutta: University of Calcutta.
  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.
  • Harinanda, Swami. Yoga and The Portal. Jai Dee Marketing. ISBN 0978142950.
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
  • Marshall, John (1931). Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization: Being an Official Account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjodaro Carried Out by the Government of India Between the Years 1922-27. Delhi: Indological Book House.
  • Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1.
  • Mittra, Dharma Sri. Asanas: 608 Yoga Poses. 1st ed. California: New World Library 2003.
  • Saraswati, swami satyananda. November 2002 (12th edition). "Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha" ISBN 81-86336-14-1
  • Usharabudh, Arya Pandit. Philosophy of Hatha Yoga. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: Himalayan Institute Press 1977, 1985.
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1994). Raja Yoga. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-85301-16-6. 21st reprint edition.
  • Schnäbele, Verena (2010). Yoga in Modern Society. Bewegungskultur, Vol. 7. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac. ISBN 978-3-8300-5096-4.
  • Weber, Hans-Jörg L. (2007). Yogalehrende in Deutschland: eine humangeographische Studie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von netzwerktheoretischen, bildungs- und religionsgeographischen Aspekten. Heidelberg: University of Heidelberg.

[edit] External links

This page was last modified on 12 July 2010 at 14:33.


De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Patañjali retratado como encarnación de la serpiente divina Adi Sesha (expansión de Sankarshan).

El yoga (del sánscrito योग yoga) es uno de los seis darśanas o doctrinas tradicionales del hinduismo.

La palabra se asocia con prácticas de meditación en el hinduismo, el budismo y el jainismo. En el hinduismo, también se refiere a una de las seis escuelas ortodoxas (āstika) de la filosofía hindú, y la meta hacia la cual que dirige la escuela de sus prácticas. En el jainismo se refiere a la suma total de todas las actividades-mentales, físicas y verbales.

Estas doctrinas son (los fundadores o principales referentes históricos de cada uno):

Según sus practicantes, el yoga otorga como resultado:

  • la «unión o integración del alma individual con Dios», entre los que tienen una postura de tipo devocional (religiosa), o bien
  • «el desarrollo de la conciencia espiritual (esto es, el percatamiento de la naturaleza, origen y destino espiritual del ser)», entre los que tienen una postura racionalista (atea o agnóstica).



[editar] Etimología de la palabra «yoga»

La palabra española «yoga» proviene del sánscrito yoga, que procede a su vez del verbo yuj: ‘colocar el yugo [a dos bueyes, para unirlos], concentrar la mente, absorberse en meditación, recordar, unir, conectar, otorgar, etc.’. El verbo yuj es la misma raíz indoeuropea de los términos castellanos «yugo» y «conyugal».

[editar] Historia

Fotografía del libro Mohenjo Daro and the Indus Civilization (del arqueólogo británico sir John Marshall; Londres, 1931) que muestra un sello de arcilla de la civilización del valle del Indo. A partir de esta estatuilla (entre las miles encontradas) Marshall formuló tres hipótesis: a) el ser sentado sería el dios Shivá; b) estaría practicando un āsana de yoga; y c) el yoga tendría entonces 35 siglos de antigüedad.

El yoga se originó posiblemente antes de nuestra era en India, donde persiste como tradición. Debido a que los textos sánscritos carecen de cronología, se desconoce exactamente cuándo los habitantes del subcontinente índico comenzaron a realizar este tipo de meditación con posturas físicas.

En 1931, el arqueólogo británico sir John Marshall descubrió en Mojensho Daro (Pakistán) un sello de esteatita del siglo XVII a. C. de la cultura del valle del Indo, con una criatura antropomorfa con cuernos, en una posición sentada con las piernas cruzadas. Marshall generó tres hipótesis:

  1. el ser sentado sería el dios Shivá (?); por eso Marshall bautizó al sello «Paśupati» (‘señor de las bestias’, otro nombre del dios hindú Shivá);
  2. el ser estaría practicando un ásana de yoga;
  3. por lo tanto el yoga tendría por lo menos 35 siglos de antigüedad.

En la actualidad algunos escritores en Occidente, entre ellos G.Feurstein, Mircea Eliade, Van Lysbeth y DeRose, creen que esta es una prueba de que en la cultura del Indo se conocía el yoga. Algunas citas:

  • "(...) pueden detectarse vestigios de una forma primitiva de Yoga ya en la denominada civilización del Indo que floreció en los milenios segundo y tercero a.C."[1]
  • "El Yôga tuvo su origen en la India (...) hace cinco mil años (...) en la civilización harappiana o dravídica, que se expandió a partir del Valle del Río Indo."[2]

En cambio, los hinduistas sostienen que el yoga es eterno (anādi: ‘sin comienzo’) y siempre existió.

[editar] Tipos de yoga

Los tipos de yoga que se consideran fundamentales o clásicos son:[cita requerida]

Las denominaciones bhakti yoga y haṭha yoga no corresponden a ramas o caminos fundamentales del yoga clásico. El haṭha yoga es una parte del rāja yoga.

[editar] Rāja yoga

Artículo principal: Rāja yoga
Un sadhú (santo) según un grabado de 48 × 35 cm de Frans Balthazar Solvyns (1760-1824) para el libro Illustrations de les hindous. París: F. B. Solvyns et H. Nicolle, 1812.

El rāja yoga (lit. ‘yoga regio’ donde rāja: ‘rey’),

Se suele identificar al rāja yoga con el aṣṭāṅga yoga descrito por Patañjali.

[editar] Ocho etapas

Artículo principal: Aṣṭāṅga yoga

El texto sánscrito Yoga sūtra (‘aforismos de yoga’) de Patañjali (probablemente del siglo III a. C.) prescribe la adhesión a ocho preceptos que constituyen lo que se denomina aṣṭāṅga yoga, el ‘yoga de los ocho miembros’ (aṣṭa: ‘ocho’, aṅga: ‘miembro’). En este texto Patañjali recopiló y sistematizó los conocimientos acerca de estas técnicas.[4]

Estos «ocho miembros» son:

  1. yama (‘prohibiciones’):
    1. ahiṃsā (‘no violencia’, sensibilidad hacia otros seres)
    2. satya (‘veracidad’, no mentir)
    3. asteya (‘no robar’)
    4. brahmacharya (‘conducta brahmánica’, aunque en la práctica significaba celibato y estudio de los Vedás)
    5. aparigraha (‘no apegarse’ al hogar, etc.)
  2. niyama (‘preceptos’):
    1. śaucha (‘limpieza’ física y mental)
    2. santoṣa (‘completa satisfacción’)
    3. tapas (disciplina, ‘consumirse por el calor’)
    4. svādhyāya (‘recitar [los Vedás en voz baja,] para sí mismo’)
    5. iśvara praṇidhāna (‘ofrecerse al Controlador [Dios]’)
  3. āsana (‘postura’): la columna vertebral debe mantenerse erecta y el cuerpo estable en una postura cómoda para la meditación. El hatha yoga se enfoca en este miembro.
  4. prāṇāyāma (‘control de la respiración’; prana: energía mística presente en el aire respirado; y yama: ‘control’)
  5. pratyāhāra (‘poco comer’, control de los sentidos; prati: ‘poco’; ahara: ‘comer; implica el retraimiento de los sentidos de los objetos externos).
  6. dhāraṇā (‘sostenimiento’; dhara: ‘sostener’; implica la concentración de la mente en un pensamiento).
  7. dhyāna (‘meditación’).
  8. samādhi (‘completa absorción’).

[editar] Jñāna yoga

Artículo principal: Jñāna yoga

El jñāna (‘conocimiento’) se aplica tanto en contextos sagrados como laicos. Vinculado con el término yoga, se puede referir al aprendizaje o conocimiento conceptual, y a la más elevada sabiduría, visión intuitiva o gnosis, es decir, a una especie de conocimiento liberador o intuición. Ocasionalmente, el jñāna se equipara incluso con la Realidad última.

[editar] Karma yoga

Artículo principal: Karma yoga

El karma yoga, yoga de la acción o, más bien, del servicio, es la dedicación completa de las actividades, las palabras y la mente a Dios. El karma yoga no es la actividad dedicada al bien.

Según el hinduismo, las buenas obras (el buen karma) no llevan a Dios, sino a una siguiente reencarnación en mejores condiciones de vida, mientras que las actividades pecaminosas (el mal karma) llevan a una reencarnación en peores condiciones de vida. El karma yoga no produce reacciones materiales, sino que libera al alma y le permite, en el momento de la muerte, volver con Dios.

[editar] Otros denominaciones asociadas al yoga

Las siguientes escuelas no deben identificarse como fundamentales en el yoga:

[editar] Haṭha yoga

Artículo principal: Haṭha yoga
Archivo:Yoga person.JPG
Una joven occidental practicando haṭha yoga, las manos unidas en pranāma (saludo reverencial) de pie sobre una mesa, en una convención de yoguis.

El haṭha yoga es el yoga más difundido en todo el mundo, conocido por sus āsanas (o posiciones corporales). Se trata de un sistema de posturas físicas cuyo propósito es lograr que el cuerpo esté apto para la meditación. Las āsanas generan serenidad física y mental, de tal forma que el yogui devoto pueda sentarse durante varias horas en una postura de meditación sin sufrir fatiga o inquietud. Una de sus āsanas principales es padmāsana (o ‘posición de loto’) y el «saludo al sol» (Sūriá namaskar).

Actualmente el haṭha yoga enfatiza la relajación.

[editar] Bhakti yoga

Artículo principal: Bhakti yoga

El bhakti yoga es el yoga devocional. La diferencia con el karma yoga es muy sutil: aunque ambos tipos de practicantes dedican sus actividades al «Absoluto», a los practicantes de la devoción (bhaktas) les interesa un conocimiento más esotérico de la naturaleza de Dios (en su personalidad como Krishná) y de sus actividades, provenientes de desarrollos más modernos de los Vedás, especialmente del Srimad Bhágavatam.

El bhakti yoga fue popularizado en los años 1970 por el movimiento Hare Krishna.

[editar] Aṣṭāṅga vinyasa yoga

Artículo principal: Aṣṭāṅga vinyasa yoga

El ashtanga vinyasa yoga es un sistema de yoga basado en el texto Yoga korunta. Sri T. Krishnanamacharya escribió que lo había aprendido (en forma oral) de su gurú Rama Mohan Brahmachari a principios del siglo XX. Luego Krishnamacharya se lo enseñó a sus discípulos Indra Devi, B. K. S. Iyengar, Sri Pattabhi Jois y a T. K. V. Desikachar, su hijo. Estos maestros lo difundieron en Occidente. Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, que enseña en la actualidad este sistema en la India, aprendió este tipo de yoga de Krishnanamacharya, con quien estudió desde 1927.

Esta escuela del yoga intenta incorporar las ocho ramas tradicionales del yoga (conocidas como aṣṭāṅga yoga) según lo expuesto por Patañjali en sus Yoga sūtras. Enfatiza el vinyasa (movimiento sincronizado con la respiración) mediante un método progresivo de series de posturas con una respiración específica (ujjāyī prāṇāyāma).

Según sus adeptos, esta práctica produce calor interno y abundante sudoración. Este calor purifica los músculos y los órganos, elimina toxinas y permite que el cuerpo se reconstituya. Este método requiere mucha elasticidad y fuerza muscular, y está recomendado para quienes deseen bajar de peso y aumentar su fuerza y elasticidad.

[editar] Kriyā yoga

Artículo principal: Kriyā yoga
Archivo:Lahiri Mahasaya.jpg
Lajiri Majāśaia sentado en posición de loto. Fotografía tomada del libro Autobiografía de un yogui, de Paramahamsa Yogananda.

Según el Bhágavata Puraná (4.13.3), el Yoga sūtra (2.1) y el Kriyā yoga sāra (una sección del Padma puraná), el kriyā yoga es la forma práctica de la filosofía del yoga, un tipo de devoción activa: unión con la divinidad mediante la debida práctica de los deberes cotidianos.

El kriyā yoga fue popularizado en Occidente por Paramahansa Yogananda en su libro Autobiografía de un yogui. Según este autor, el yoga de kriyā acelera la evolución espiritual y genera un profundo estado de la tranquilidad. Las técnicas del kriyā yoga fueron popularizadas por el yogui Lahiri Mahāśaia. Se trataría de una forma mística del prāṇāyāma, o sea, el control de la energía respiratoria.

La palabra sánscrita kriyā significa:

  • acción, realización, ocupación, negocio, trabajo, labor (según el Kātiāiana śrauta sūtra, las Leyes de Manú)
  • acción física, ejercitamiento de los miembros (según lexicógrafos como Amarasimha y Hemachandra).
  • investigación judicial (por medios humanos, como testigos, documentos, etc) o por medios sobrehumanos
  • expiación de una culpa
  • acción (como la idea general que se puede expresar con un verbo)
  • verbo. Según los gramáticos hay dos tipos de verbos: sakarma-kriyā (‘activos’) y akarma-kriyā (‘intransitivos’)
  • sacrificio, rito religioso
  • acción religiosa, hija de Kardama y esposa de Dharma

En cambio, según Yogananda la palabra kriyā significa ‘limpieza’ (ya sea ésta física o mental), aquella que ayuda a eliminar las kleshas (impurezas) que plagan las acciones de sus seguidores. Según las doctrinas del yoga, los kleshas son:

  • avidyā: ignorancia
  • asmitā: egoísmo
  • rāga: deseo
  • dveṣa: odio
  • abhiniveśa: tenacidad por la existencia mundana.

Mediante la respiración calmada del kriyā yoga los latidos del corazón se aquietan. Como resultado, la energía vital se desconecta de los cinco sentidos y la mente adquiere entonces el estado consciente de pratyāhāra, o sea, el retraimiento de los sentidos de los objetos externos (siendo prati: ‘poco’ y ahara: ‘comer’).

[editar] Kundalinī yoga

Artículo principal: Kundalinī yoga
Archivo:Tanumânasî kapalabhati.JPG
Yogui en posición de loto practicando respiración prāṇāyāma

Fue introducido en Occidente en los años 1970 por Yogi Bhajan. El kundalinī yoga incluye āsanas (posturas), prāṇāyāma (control de la respiración), canto de mantras, mudras (gestos psíquicos), bandhas (llaves energéticas) y kriyās (ejercicios).[5]

Las posturas son sencillas y acompañadas de una respiración dinámica, conocida como «respiración de fuego». Requiere poca exigencia física y la práctica genera tranquilidad mental y vitalidad.

El kundalinī yoga enfatiza:

  • La lentitud del movimiento
  • La concentración mental en el movimiento
  • La respiración profunda durante su práctica
  • La inmovilidad total en la postura mantenida
  • La relajación durante y después de cada ejercicio

[editar] Escuelas modernas

Otros tipos de yoga creados en la segunda mitad del siglo XX (presentados en orden alfabético):

  • Purna yoga (‘yoga completo’, síntesis moderna de varios métodos de yoga).
  • Sahaja Yoga es un yoga creado en 1970 por Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi, cuyo objetivo es el desarrollo integral del ser humano o, lo que es lo mismo, conseguir la consciencia plena de nuestro verdadero Ser. Para llegar a este objetivo es necesario despertar una energía que reside en nuestro hueso sacro, conocida desde antiguo con el nombre de Kundalini.

Con el método propuesto por Sahaja Yoga, este despertar ocurre de una manera espontánea y natural, sin forzar nada en ningún momento.

  • Swásthya Yôga es el nombre de la escuela fundada por el maestro brasileño DeRose en el siglo XX.Según el autor, el svāsthya yoga es la codificación y sistematización de un tipo de yoga estrictamente práctico, preclásico, pre-védico y pre-ario, de linaje tantra-samkhia (por lo tanto matriarcal, sensorial, desrepresor, naturalista y técnico). Su nombre erudito sería dakshina-achara-tántrika-niríshwara-samkhia-yoga (yoga ateo tántrico).Según sus seguidores, el svāsthya yoga es la sistematización del yoga original y más antiguo. Consideran que el yoga clásico (de Patañjali) es una forma posterior.[6]
  • Natha Yoga (‘yoga terapéutico’, sistema que integra varios métodos de yoga, apuntando a la educación).

El tantra no se considera un tipo de yoga, a pesar de que algunos lo llaman tantra yoga, sino que es otra escuela hindú.

[editar] Doctrinas del yoga

Los textos que establecen las bases del yoga son el Bhagavad gītā, los Yoga sūtras (de Patañjali), el Gheranda samhita, el Yoga darshana upanishad y el Haṭha yoga pradīpikā.

Según las doctrinas hindúes en las que se asienta el yoga, el ser humano es un alma (ātman) encerrada en un cuerpo (rupa). El cuerpo tiene varias partes: el cuerpo físico (deha o śarira), la mente (mana), la inteligencia (jña) y el ego falso (ahaṃkāra).

Para llevar una vida plena, es preciso satisfacer tres necesidades: la necesidad física (salud y actividad), la necesidad psicológica (conocimiento y poder) y la necesidad espiritual (felicidad y paz). Cuando las tres se hallan presentes, hay armonía. El yoga es una sabiduría práctica que abarca cada aspecto del ser de una persona. Enseña al individuo a evolucionar mediante el desarrollo de la autodisciplina. El yoga también está definido como la restricción de las emociones, que son vistas como meras fluctuaciones (vṛtti) de la mente. Los seguidores del hinduismo distinguen entre el alma (impasible, sin emociones) y la mente (siempre fluctuante y llena de ansiedades).

Según algunos, el yoga ofrece los medios para comprender el funcionamiento de la mente, o incluso sería el arte de estudiar el comportamiento de la mente. Pero otros opinan que el yoga no estudia nada, no se trata de un esfuerzo intelectual sino de una experiencia mística, que entre otras cosas ayuda a serenar los incesantes movimientos de la mente, conduciendo a un imperturbable estado de silencio mental. Los vaisnavas (adoradores de Vishnú) niegan este concepto, y dicen que no se puede silenciar a la mente, sino que se la debe ocupar en actividades espirituales (ofrecidas a Dios), que al mismo tiempo satisfarían la ansiedad de la misma y la purificarían de los deseos materiales.

El yoga es, pues, el arte y la ciencia de la disciplina mental a través de la que se cultiva y madura la mente. No es una ciencia en el sentido occidental de la palabra. Los hindúes utilizan el concepto de ciencia porque saben que en el más racionalista mundo occidental la ciencia está bien conceptuada.

El yoga busca llegar a la integración del alma (ātman) individual con Dios (el Brahman) o con su deidad (avatar). Esa re-unión se llama samādhi, a través de la cual se accede a la liberación (mokṣa).

[editar] Textos fundamentales del yoga

[editar] Bhagavad Gita

Artículo principal: Bhagavad Gita

En el Bhagavad guitá (‘la canción del Opulento’), el dios Krishná (también llamado Bhagaván) establece de manera extremadamente somera cuatro corrientes principales del yoga (presentadas en orden de importancia, según los estudiosos del Bhagavad guitá):

  • El aṣṭāṅga yoga (o ‘yoga de los ocho pasos’, con práctica de āsanas o posturas)
  • El jñāna yoga (o búsqueda intelectual del Absoluto, mediante el estudio de lógica y la meditación),
  • El karma yoga (o yoga de la acción dedicada a Dios)
  • El bhakti yoga (‘devoción’ dirigida hacia Krishná como persona)

[editar] Yoga sūtras de Patañjali

Artículo principal: Yoga sūtra

En el Yoga sūtra, Patañjali define el yoga con el siguiente aforismo:

योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
(yogaḥ citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ)
- Yoga sūtra 1.2

siendo citta: ‘consciencia’, vṛtti: ‘fluctuaciones, movimientos’ y nirodhaḥ: ‘restricción, supresión, control’.[7] La traducción literal es, pues: ‘El yoga es la restricción de las fluctuaciones de la consciencia’.[cita requerida]

Algunas otras traducciones de este aforismo son:

  • De Rose: yoga es la supresión de la inestabilidad de la conciencia.
  • Gardini: el yoga es la supresión de las modificaciones de la mente.
  • Kurma Raja Dasa: yoga es el cese de las fluctuaciones de la mente.
  • Purohit Swami: yoga es el control de las actividades de la mente.
  • Madhu Devi Natha (Mariel Mendizabal): yoga es hacer consciente lo inconsciente mediante el control de la actividad mental.
  • Satia Prakash: yoga es la inhibición de las funciones mentales.
  • Shivananda: el yoga es la supresión de los torbellinos mentales.
  • Taimni: yoga es la inhibición de las modificaciones de la mente.
  • Tola y Dragonetti: yoga es la restricción de los procesos de la mente.
  • Vishnudevananda: el yoga es la supresión de la actividad mental.
  • Wood, Ernest E.: yoga es el control de las ideas en la mente.

[editar] Haṭha yoga pradīpikā

Artículo principal: Haṭha yoga pradīpikā

[editar] Yoguis famosos

Artículo principal: Yoguis notables

[editar] Principales estudiosos occidentales del yoga durante el siglo XX

[editar] Citas

  • Según el antiguo autor hindú Patañjali (posiblemente siglo III a. C.): «El yoga es la restricción de las fluctuaciones de la consciencia» (Yoga sutra, capítulo Samadhi, 1.2).
  • Según la maestra letona Indra Devi (1899-2002): «El yoga es un arte y una ciencia de la vida». Justamente su fundación se denomina Arte y Ciencia de la Vida.
  • Según el brasileño DeRose (1944-): «Yoga es cualquier metodología estrictamente práctica que conduzca al samadhi». El mismo autor afirma: «El samādhi es un estado de megalucidez que sólo el yoga proporciona».
  • Según Ramiro Calle (en El libro de los yogas, 1998): «El yoga propone la superación de la ignorancia metafísica mediante una praxis, un método liberatorio que conduzca a la sabiduría discriminativa, es decir, que afine y purifique el discernimiento».

[editar] Véase también

AuraChakrasContorsionismoEntrenamiento autógenoÉxtasisIantraKundalinīKundalinī yogaMándalaMantraMeditaciónMudraNadisPaz interior o shantiPostura inversa de hatha-yogaPrāṇāyāmaQiSamādhiTantraYoga sūtras de PatañjaliZazen

[editar] Referencias

  1. G.Feurstein, Libro de texto de Yoga, pág. 53
  2. DeRose, Orígenes del Yôga Antiguo, Ed.Kier, pág.37
  3. Danilo Hernández: Claves del yoga (pág. 28), 1997.
  4. "You will find in Yajnavalkya-Smriti that Hiranyagarbha (Supreme Lord of the universe) was the original teacher of Yoga. Patanjali Maharshi is only a complier or explainer of the Yogic principles and tenets taught and practised by Hiranyagarbha and others." - Swami Sivananda, Ten Upanishads, pág. 15
  5. Danilo Hernández: Claves del yoga (pág. 32), 1997.
  6. "You will find in Yajnavalkya-Smriti that Hiranyagarbha (Supreme Lord of the universe) was the original teacher of Yoga. Patanjali Maharshi is only a complier or explainer of the Yogic principles and tenets taught and practised by Hiranyagarbha and others." - Swami Sivananda, Ten Upanishads, pág. 15
  7. Iyengar: Yoga sūtras (pág. 94), 2003.

[editar] Bibliografía

[editar] Enlaces externos



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